Sentinel Projects Namibia Page
It has been since, as part of research for this and other projects that I have come across a fair amount of information about the region and the people, and so I enclose a list of references on the subject here:
ADK(SWA) The Population Groups of South West Africa Part II - Facts and Figures
AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA 1993 (22nd Edition) Europa Publications Ltd. ISBN 0-946653-81-X ISSN 0065-3896 pp 601-617
AUALA, Leonard L The Ovambo: Our Problems and Hopes Pasadena; California Institute of Technology, 1973 Munger Africana Library Notes, 17
BEYERS, J.J. Climate of Owambo: a preliminary report/ by J.J. Beyers and E.E. Katsiambirtas. - [Windhoek]: Meterological Service, 1987. - 38 p.: tab. (Climate of South West Africa/Namibia series;1)
CIIR Namibia in the 1980's - A Future for Namibia 1 CIIR, 1986 ISBN 0 946848 440 [Uni-York; consulted and pages 41-45, 62-3, 69-72]
Department of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of South Africa. South West Africa Survey 1967 (March 1967)
HILLEBRECHT, W Namibia in Theses and Dissertations (1985)
JONES, Maxine Inside Namibia: Travelling North Action on Namibia, May 1990, p. 8 - 9.
KOTZE, J.C. Die Kuanyama van Ovamboland, Suid-Wes Afrika: 'n studie van waardeopvotting MA Thesis, Stellenbosch, University of Stellenbosch, 1968
LEISTNER, Gerhard Max Erich & Esterhuysen, P. Namibia 1990 Series: Africa Institute County Survey ISBN 0-7983-0108-2 Africa Insitiute of South Africa, P.O. Box 630, Pretoria, 0001
LEVINSON, Olga South West Africa Tafelberg, Cape Town, 1976, ISBN 0-624-00249-4
LINDEQUE, M. Seasonal Wetlands in Owambo and the Etosha National Park/ M. Lindeque and T.J. Archibald, MADOQUA, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 129-133: tabs.. - Windhoek 1991.
LOUW, Walther Owambo Sandton, Southern African Freedom, 1977
MALAN, J.S. Peoples of South West Africa - Namibia Pretoria, Haum, 1980.
Oshanas: sustaining people environment and development in central Owambo, Namibia/ [compiled by Tony Cunningham; Johan Kinahan; Alan Marsh; Viv Stuart-Mills; Dianne Hubbard; Emmanuel Kreike; Mary Seely. Final Editing by Alan MARSH; Mary Seely]. - [Windhoek]: DRFN and SIDA, 1992. - 52,  p. : ill., maps
McDOUGAL, Gay Oshakati - Northern outpost of white terror, Action on Namibia, Spring 1988, p. 20.
MOLEAH, Alfred Namibia: The Struggle for Liberation USA: Disa Press, Wilmington, DE, ISBN 0-913255-01-7
MoLLER, Peter August Journey in Africa through Angola, Ovampoland and Damaraland. (Translated from the original Swedish edition of 1899 by Ione and Talmar Rudner) Cape Town, Struik, 1974
MOLNAR, Thomas South West Africa: The Last Pioneer Country Fleet Publishing Corporation, New York, 1966. Library of Congress Catalogue Number: 66-26807
MOORSOM, Richard Namibia Bibliographic Database Joensull, Department of History, University of Joensull, 1988 (256 pp)
MORGAN, Jenny `Angola - South Africa's Dirty War', Narrated by Linton Kwesi Johnson, C4 8 December 1987 - Bandung File (Referred to in Action On Namibia, Spring 1988, p.7.)
M'PASSOU, Denis B. The Churches' participation in the development of Ovamboland/ by Denis B. M'Passou. - Windhoek: Churches Information and Monitoring Service, 1990. - 63 p. 3 ill., map
NEPRU working paper: Historical dynamics of traditional land tenure in Ovamboland [Windhoek] 1991. - 16 p Paper, National Conference on Land Reform (Windhoek, 1991)
NEPRU: Land related issues in the communal lands: 1 Owambo. Draft 2. [Windhoek] 1991. - 20 p. (NEPRU briefing paper; 1.1) Paper, National Conference on Land Reform (Windhoek, 1991)
RODIN, R (1985) Ethnobotany of the Kwanyama Ovambos Monographs in Systematical botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden; 9
SAUNDERS, Christopher Perspectives on Namibia: Past and Present. Occasional Papers No.4, 1983 Centre For African Studies University of Cape Town ISBN 0-7992 0526 5
SPARKS, Donald L, and Green, December Namibia: The Nation after Independence (1992) Westview Press, Boulder, Colerado ISBN 0-8133-1023-7 Westview Press, 36 Lonsdale Road, Summertown, Oxford, OX2 7EW
Thomas, Oldfield, On mammals from Ovamboland and the Cunene River, obtained during Capt. Shortridge's third Percy Sladen and Kaffrarian Museum into South-West Africa/ by Oldfield Thomas, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, 1926, part 1, pp. 285 - 312. - London, 1926.
THORNBERRY, Cedric The UNTAG Experience in Namibia - First Phase Braamfontein, South African Institute for International Affairs, 1990 (Occasional Paper, 10p)
VAN DER MERWE, J.H. (Ed.). National Atlas of South West Africa / Namibia Windhoek, Directorate of Development Co-ordination, 1983 Stellenbosch University, Institute for Cartographic Analysis
VAN DER WAAL, B. C. W. Fish life of the oshana delta in Owambo, Namibia, and the translocation of Cunene species/ B.C.W. van der Waal, MADOQUA, Vol. 17, no 2, pp. 201-209; map, tabs.. - Windhoek, 1991.
WAGNER, Gunther A Study of the Okahandja District, South West Africa Pretoria, Government Printer, 1957 South African Department of Native Affairs Ethnology Publications, No. 38 [Okahandja is about 70 km north of Windhoek, and so definately not part of Owamboland]
WOOD, Brian (Ed.). Namibia 1884-1984: Readings on Namibia's History and Society. Namibia Support Committee, in cooperation with the United Nations Institute for Namibia, P.O. Box 33811, Lusaka ISBN: 0 947905 05 7
WOOD, Brian What the Papers Said ... Action on Namibia, Spring 1988, p.6.
WHITE, Jon Manchip The Land God Made in Anger: Reflections on a journey through South West Africa. George Allen and Unwin, Ltd, London, 1969. SBN 04 916006 0 pp. 189
I have written permission from the authors or copyright holders to include the following passages in the published version of `Grensvegter?'
"SWAPO, founded in 1960, began its bush war in northern Namibia in 1966. The war has steadily increased in scale, with SWAPO fighters annually infiltrating Namibia from their Angolan bases during the rainy season for a spring offensive. SWAPO units benefit from the vast area that the South Africans need to watch and they rely on the support of the Ovambo tribespeople whose territory straddles the border between Namibia and Angola. SWAPO's campaign has tied up large numbers of South African and Namibian troops on the northern border, and border towns like Ruacana, Oshakati and Ondangwa ared virtually armed camps. In the operational area the 'boys on the border' (South African troops) travel in air force planes and helicopters flying at tree-top level to avoid ground-to-air fire and in armed convoys on the roads. At night searchlights on the armoured vehicles sweep the road for potential ambushes."
(Leach, 1986, p. 208)
Extract from a South African Daily Newspaper:
Oshakati, a dull fortified village lying about 60 km south of the Angolan border, provides a grimly accurate reflection of [the South African army's] position.
High fences circle the entire town where rows of dreary prefabricated houses line dusty streets. Bomb shelters are a bizarre, yet realistic, feature of every garden.
Anti-aircraft guns on towering stands point menacingly into the African sky and at the nearby Ondangua air base jet fighters and radar provide additional protection. It is a 'white' village with gates manned by military policemen an a dusk-to-dawn curfew.
At its only hotel, members of the police Counter-Insurgency unit Koevoet ... exchange stories of 'kills' while quaffing generous quantities of Windhoek beer ...
Beyond Oshakati's tenuous security South African soldiers are treated with cold civility. Outside the fences the town's other face is pimpled with the dilapidated tin shanties of the slums built by hundreds of rural people trying to escape the war.
Hygiene is basic, while sanitation is almost non-existent. Teenage members of Koevoet slouch around the market places where bloody portions of cattle are offered on pieces of rusty corrugated iron.
From `Star' (Johannesburg) 19.8.83, quoted in Cawthra (1986), p. 196.
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